43In this survey, private contacts were the most important in the creation of partnerships. This indicates that twinning exchanges are mainly the effects of existing socio-economic relations and real human mobility. Although private contacts between local communities are very important, the support of various institutions that support cooperation financially and through the exchange of information also has a great influence on currents, a factor highlighted by several authors (Schep et al., 1995; Budzynowska, 1996; Algiers, 1999; Grochowski and Regulska, 2000; Marczuk and Palka, 2002). The twinning of cities is a form of international cooperation at the local level (MIC). It allows local communities to share their experiences and innovations in municipal and municipal administration techniques and encourages people to follow the trend to remove political barriers. It generates flows of goods and people in an exchange initiated by local governments and organized with their help. Over the past ten years, international cooperation of local governments in Poland has mainly led to the exchange of information, goods and people with Western Europe and the Scandinavian countries (64% of all connections in 2001), mainly with Germany, France, the Netherlands and Denmark. The main trends in the flow of goods and information have been from advanced countries to Poland. Only human (cultural) exchanges were truly bilateral. If we do not take into account cooperation with neighbouring countries, institutional ties with Eastern, Southern and Central Europe have been very weak.

This shows and confirms the dominance of parallel connections in this part of Europe whose strength to the East is diminishing. These flows have contributed to Poland`s integration with Western Europe. The most common barrier was the lack of financial resources and the most chosen partners were richer. Private contact with local managers has been of the utmost importance in networking partners. This shows that the exchange trends of partner municipalities are above all the result and not the source of existing social and economic relations. The Vale of Glamorgan Twining Association, made up of officers and volunteer members, was formally formed in 2010 to promote international relations, focusing on, managing and promoting partnership activities. The association supports the Vale`s social, cultural, sports and educational organizations in developing links with similar interest groups in the Twin Cities of the Vale. 14The closure of the borders due to the political crisis of the early 1980s, including the introduction of martial law (1981-1982), led to the disappearance of all contacts, but after 1983, cooperation slowly returned to pre-1980 levels. During this period, contacts were generally limited to civil servants and legal organizations (e.g.B.